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L'Ancêtre Claude Poulin 1616-1687

Poulin et Poullin, Poulain et Poullain sont des surnoms signifiant un homme vif, rapide comme un jeune poulain.

NOTE: On trouvera un complément d'information sur l'origine du nom de famille Poulin et l'ancêtre Claude sur cette page

alternative description Claude Poulin, charpentier

Claude Poulin ou Claude-Basile Poulin est baptisé le 26 janvier 1616, originaire de la paroisse de Saint-Maclou de Rouen en Normandie, département de la Seine-Maritime; l'église de Saint-Maclou date de la 2e moitié`du XVe siècle. Il est le fils de Pascal ou Pasel Poulin et de Marie Levert. Claude Poulin signait Poullain.

Claude est instruit et sait lire et écrire. Le 1er juin 1636, il arrive à Québec, au pied du Cap Diamant, sur le vaisseau du Sieur Courpon, en même temps qu’Étienne Racine et Robert Caron. Claude épouse à Québec dans la paroisse de Notre-Dame-de-la-Recouvrance, le 8 août 1639, Jeanne Mercier, baptisée le 25 décembre 1621, à Saint-Jean de Mortagne, au Perche, fille de Loup Mercier et de Jeanne Gaillard de Saint-Jean de Mortagne.

Claude Poulin s'établit à Trois-Rivières comme charpentier. Il y fait baptiser un enfant, Marie, le 1er janvier 1641. Peu après, il retourne en France avec sa femme. il y fait baptiser un fils Pascal le 15 février 1645 et une fille Madeleine en 1646 comme en font foi les registres de la paroisse St-Maclou. De retour au Canada vers 1647 il est d'abord fermier pour le seigneur de Cap-Tourmente puis en 1651, il fait l'acquisition d'une terre dans les environs de l'actuelle basilique de Sainte-Anne de Beaupré (voir texte ci-après).

alternative description Lot de Claude Poulin à Petit-Cap. Image en grand format.
Voir l'album photo des familles Poulin...
Albums Photos

En 1648, il fait baptiser un autre fils, cette fois-ci, à Québec. Le recensement général fait au pays en 1667 le retrouve à Sainte-Anne de Beaupré. Les recenseurs font sur son foyer l'originale description que voici : «Claude Poulin, 31, Jeanne Meteyer (Mercier) sa femme, 40; Martin, 19, Ignace 12, Marguerite 9, Marie 7, Pierre 3; 8 bestiaux, 30 arpents de valeur». Ils seront parmi les premiers colons de la Côte de Beaupré, dans la partie située aujourd’hui dans les paroisses Sainte-Anne et Saint-Joachim. Olivier LeTardif lui concèdera une terre de six arpents de front dans la Seigneurie de Beaupré à St-Anne-du-Petit-Cap (actuellement St-Anne-de-Beaupré). Le 1er septembre 1651, il accepte une concession qui lui est faite par la fabrique de Québec et sise encore au Petit-Cap. En 1667, Claude Poulin possède trente arpents de terre défrichée. Claude a 51 ans, Jeanne Mercier en a 40.

Au total, neuf enfants naissent de leur union. Le 14 décembre 1687, Jeanne Mercier décède. Trois jours plus tard Claude Poulin va la rejoindre et s’éteint à son tour, alors âgé de 72 ans. Le couple est probablement ravagé par la petite vérole ou la rougeole, qui étaient épidémiques durant ces années. Claude et Jeanne avaient 312 descendants en date du 31 décembre 1729.

- Descendants de Claude Poulin documentés dans la généalogie Genepoulin jusqu'à la 12e génération. - Lignée de l'ancêtre Claude Poulin [lien] donne un aperçu de l'imposante descendance de cet ancêtre originaire de la Normandie - plus de 7300 noms et 428 patronymes répertoriés de 1636 jusqu'aux années 1950.

alternative description Lots Poulin à Petit-Cap de St-Anne (de Beaupré) et St-Joachim. Image en grand format dans l'Album Photo Genepoulin.


Voici un extrait tiré du livre Troisieme Centenaire de la Famille Poulin au Canada, par Joseph-Philippe Poulin, 1939.

CLAUDE POULIN 1639 QUÉBEC.

Parmi les premiers colons arrivés en NouvelleFrance pour y demeurer et y fonder un foyer, il y en a huit, tous ayant, le même nom de famille et n'ayant entre eux aucune parenté ; ils venaient tous de France, et, pour la plupart, de départements différents. Il s'agit donc ici des familles Poulin.

Le premier Poulin à passer au Canada fut Claude Poulin, baptisé en 1615, fils de Pascal Poulin et de Marie Levert, de SaintMaclou de Rouen, en Normandie, France. Dans le dictionnaire de Monseigneur Tanguay, le lieu d'origine ainsi que les noms des père et mère de Claude Poulin ne sont pas indiqués ; les renseignements cihaut touchant le premier Poulin m'ont été fournis par Vaillancourt, dans son livre intitulé " La Conquête du Canada par les Normands."

Claude Poulin arriva à Québec dans l'après midi du Il juin 1636, fête de la SaintBarnabé. Voici ce que dit "La Relation" des Jésuites à ce sujet : " Dans l'aprèsmidi du même jour (un autre vaisseau étant arrivé portant le gouverneur Montmagny) on vit paraître sur le fleuve un autre vaisseau ; ce vaisseau du sieur Courpon portait plusieurs nouvelles familles qui venaient grossir la colonie. C'était un sujet où il y avait à louer Dieu, de voir en ces contrées des demoiselles fort délicates, des petits enfants tendrelets sortir d'une prison de bois comme le jour sort des ténèbres de la nuit, de jouir, après de si longs mois de traversée, d'une aussi douce santé, nonobstant toutes les incomodités qu'on reçoit dans ces maisons flottantes, comme si on s'était promené au cours dans un carosse."

Selon l'abbé Ferland qui nous rapporte les paroles du Père L.jeune qu'on vient de citer, ce vaisseau du sieur Courpon portait Etienne Racine, Robert Caron et Claude Poulin qui furent parmi les premiers colons de la côte de Beaupré et dont les descendants se comptent par milliers, surtout en tenant compte des alliances. A noter que c'est de la Normandie que nous vint le plus grand nombre des colons ; ils étaient tous des gens intègres appartenant à d'honnêtes familles, comme l'ont prouvé nos historiens, tels les abbés Ferland et Groulx, pour ne citer que ceux-là.

Quelques années après, Claude Poulin épousait, dans l'église de Notre-Dame-de-la-Recouvrance, à Québec, Jeanne Mercier, fille de Loup Mercier et de Jeanne Gaillard. D'où vevait Jeanne Mercier? Nous trouvons dans le volume intitulé " Origine des familles canadiennes ", page 31, du Père Archange Godbout, franciscain, les renseignements suivants touchant Jeanne Mercier: Loup Mercier et Jeanne Gaillard, mariés le 25ième jour de septembre 1611. De ce mariage sont nés plusieurs enfants, dont Jeanne, le 25 novembre 1621 et baptisée par la sagefemme ; elle était baptisée solennellement à Mortagne en 1622. Parrain Pierre Rouchère,marraine Anne Laprou.

Voici l'extrait de mariage de Claude Poulin :

"Le 8 août 1639, les bans ordinaires étant faits, et ne s'étant trouvé aucun légitime empêchement, le Père Nicolas Adam, de la Compagnie de Jésus, faisant fonction de curé de Québec, a solennellement marié et conjoint en le lieu du saint mariage, Claude Poulin et Jeanne Mercier, après les avoir interrogés, entendus et reçu leur mutuel consentement." Les témoins qui ont signé dans les régistres furent Guillaume Boivin et le chirurgien Robert Giffard, seigneur de Beauport. Celuici a servi de témoin à la plupart des mariages des premiers colons à Québec. Après 1639 jusqu'en 1648, il n'est plus question de Claude Poulin dans les régistres de l'Etat Civil, c'est le silence complet à son sujet.

D'après Vaillancourt, cité plus haut, Claude Poulin serait retourné en France, car, d'après les registres de la paroisse de Saint-Maclou de Rouen, un de ses enfants y serait né et baptisé le 15 février 1645. "Je croyais que cet infant n'était jamais venu au Canada, mais le 1er septembre 1651, Claude Poulin se fixait définitivement sur la côte de Beaupré, tel qu'il apparaît sur la copie de vente de la Fabrique de Québec à Claude Poulin qua je reproduis cidessous" :

Furent presents en leurs personnes honorables et discrettes personnes Les Curé et Marguillers de Leglise parochialle de Quebecq Lesquels pour ne pas laissé deperir et sans profit Les fonds dont le Conseil de ce pais au nom de La communauté des habitans d'iceluy a faict don a La ditte eglise parochialle pour toujours. Ont volontairement Recognus et confessé avoir vendu ceddé quitté et transporté et promis garantir de ses faicts seulement A Claude Poulain habitant demeurant en ce pais present preneur pour luy ses hoirs et ayants cause Une concession de terre seize auprès du petit Cap en la coste de Beaupré borné ainsy quil en suict scavoir est dung costé du Nord est par une ligne quy court Nord oest et sudest Laquelle ligne faict la separation de la dite concession et les terres de Estienne de Lessart dautre costé au sudoest joignant les terres non concédées appartenants a Messrs de La Compagnie dud. Beaupré dung bout au sud est Le Grand fleuve St. Laurent dautre bout au Nord est les terres non concédées avec toults ung chacun les bastiments terres desfrichées et bois abbatus que aultres Le tout ainsy quelles se comporte a present sans en rien reserver ou retenir Icelle Concession appartenant par cy devant à Julien Perault et vendues par led. Perault au Sr. Jehan Bourdon cy devant Comis et procureur de La communaulté ainsy quil apert par le contract de vente faict soubs seing privé avec led. Sr. Bourdon Le vingtiesme doctobre Mil six cent quarante huict Iceluy mis es mains dud. Poulain Cette vente faicte par Lesd. Srs. Curé et Marguillers de Lad. eglise parochialle de Quebecq aud. Claude Poulain à Condition de payer par led. Poulain toutes charges redebvances et droicts Seigneuriaulx dont icelle terre se trouvent estre chargées envers Les Seigneurs comme aussy de payer Aud. Sr. Curé et Marguillers La somme de Cinquante Livres tournois Icelle somme de Cinquante Livres tournois payable en Ung payement et ce pour une fois seulement quy est le total de Lachapt dicelle. Laquelle somme de cinquante livres tournois Led. Poulain a baillé Icelle a Recevoir auls Srs. Curé et Marguillers sur Pierre Gaignon habitant demeurant en la dite coste de Beaupré Laquelle ils ont acceptée Recepvoir sur Icelluy Gaignon deponant effet en descharge dès presentement par vertu de la dite Cession et Transport. Led. Poulain et le tient quitte luy et touls autres quil apartiendra a Ladvenir de la ditte somme de Cinquante livres tournois. Ce fust faict et passé au fort de St. Louis de Quebecq le premier jour de septembre mil six cent cinquante et ung en presence de Flour Boujonnier et Martin Montet tesmoings lesquels ont signé Le jour et an que dessus avecq Lesd. Srs. Curé et Marguillers.


Et voici finalement un extrait concernant CLAUDE POULIN tiré de "Our French-Canadian Ancestors" par Thomas J. Laforest

The first Frenchman with the name of Poulin to come to New France was a young Recollect priest names Guillaume. After his arrival in Canada in June of 1619, he took charge of the mission at Trois-Rivieres. He was captured by the Iroquois near the falls of Saint-Louis in 1622. He was tied to a stake for torture. When his fellow priests were informed of his capture, they had him exchanged for some Iroquois prisoners. Freed, the father pursued his priestly course, as if nothing had happened.

Four others with the same last name walked the paths, of our country, but they left no descendants. Jean Poulin, the husband of Anne Robin, settled, at Rimouski about 1690. Jacques Poulin married Marie-Therese Marchand on November 23, 1739. He was a citizen of Pointe-Levy. Joseph Poulin was a bird of passage. Philippe Poulin married Marguerite Bluteau, from Cap-Saint-Ignace, on July 17, 1742.

Those who had offspring were Maurice Poulin, Sieur de Lafontaine. He married Jeanne Jaleau, at Trois-Rivieres and they had five children. Maurice was of noble lineage. Jean Poulin, the son of Jacques and Marie Violette, married Louise Pare on November 14, 1667 at Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupre. And finally, Claude Poulin, the subject of this story.

Poulin, Poullin, Poulain and Poullain are surnames meaning "a lively man, quick like a young poulain-colt" according to Dauzat (?).

SAINT-MACLOU IN ROUEN

Claude Poulin, the son of Pascal and Marie Levert, was presented for baptism at the church of Saint-Maclou in the city of Rouen, in Normandy, on January 26, 1616. Serving as his godparents were Claude Levert, undoubtedly an uncle and Marie Leclect. A known older brother, Jean, had been baptized in the same place on July 23, 1612. Was Claude Poulin a relative of Daniel Poullain, a captain in the King's navy? The same, who received a sum of money, on December 22, 1601, from nobleman Perrin Bezau to help pay for a voyage to Peru, on the ship PETITE MARIE, under the command of Poullain? The archives gave no more information about this Normand mariner.

Claude attended school and wrote his name as "Poullain". Some forty Canadian Ancestors were natives of Rouen. Coming, from Saint-Maclou, in particular, were Rene Lavoie, Etienne Leveille, Louis Lefebvre dit Batanville and Pierre Boivin. Was Claude Poulin one of the first from this town, to emigrate to Canada? A pertinent question which requires an answer.

FIRST DAY

In 1960, Monsieur J. Philippe Poulin, based on the Relations des Jesuits and the opinion of historian J. B. Antoine Ferland, stated that his Ancestor arrived at Quebec on the afternoon of June 11, 1636, the feast of Saint-Barnabe, on the ship belonging to Sieur Courpon. History does not explicitly mention the name of Claude Poulin. This hypothesis deserves respect and here is the reason.

Claude Poulin was married at Quebec on August 8, 1639. He must have been in the country for a certain time, possibly three years, according to the method of indenture which would become the custom. At that time, the large seaports from which French ships left for the great crossing of the Atlantic were Dieppe or Honfleur. Where did Claude work? Was it Quebec or Trois-Rivieres? You be the judge. The witnesses at his marriage on August 8, 1639 were surgeon, Seigneur Robert Giffard, and Guillaume Boivin, a "donne" of the Jesuits also known as a "gray brother", originally from Rouen, Normandy. The conclusion is obvious that Claude Poulin was the protege of Giffard at Beauport. The Jesuit priest, Nicolas Adam, blessed his union, with Jeanne Mercier.

Jeanne Mercier was the sister of Denise Mercier who had married Francois Baugis about 1637 at Les Sables d'Olonne, in the Vendee of Poitou. This couple went to Canada before 1641 and lived at Beauport. We are unaware of the names of the parents of Ancestress Jeanne Mercier. However, Father Archange Godbout has found in the registry of Saint-Jean de Mortagne a Jeanne Mercier, the daughter of Loup and Jeanne Gaillard, baptized on November 25, 1621, which corresponds with the age of Claude Poulin's eighteen year old wife. Was Jeanne Mercier a Percheron (Perche is a province in France) by birth? Perhaps.

As for Claude Poulin, the most surprising thing is that he went to live with his beloved at Trois-Rivieres. Did the Percheron Robert Giffard only appear at Claude's wedding out of respect to Jeanne Mercier who was from his native province? Had Claude been working at Trois-Rivieres, for a few years? We know that he had talent as a carpenter. Was he in the service of the Compagnis des Habitants or other people? Here are some facts. Claude and Jeanne had a child, named Marie. She was baptized at Trois-Rivieres on the first of January, 1641. The godfather, Jacques Hertel de la Fresniere, was the owner of two hundred arpents of land at that place since December 16, 1633. Godmother, Marie Leneuf, the wife of Jean Godefroy de Linctot, who was a seigneur since the first of December, 1637. Claude Poulin, also respected by the Jesuit Joseph Poncet, was asked to be the godfather of the little Amerindian, Rose Quenebechimouxour, on January 14, 1641.

The homesickness took hold of Jeanne and Claude. They gathered up their few belongings and their child and went to see their native Normandy, it's sky and it's people, once again. A Poulin son and daughter, Pascal and Madeleine, were born at Saint-Maclou in 1645 and 1646. Would we ever see these kindly people again?

THE RETURN

Claude Poulin and Jeanne Mercier were homesick, for the new country, free and immense. A country to be built. In 1647, the Poulin family, now composed of five members, reserved a small space on a ship and crossed the ocean once more. Was this a short-lived sentimental attack?

No, it was not! On April 17, 1646, at Paris, Olivier Tardif had signed a deed in the presence of Notary Le Vasseur by which he ceded six arpents of frontal land to Claude Poulin in the Seigneurie of Beaupre. Claude Poulin now saw himself as the owner of a certain piece of property in New France.

Where did the Poulins stay on their arrival? At Quebec or on the Beaupre Coast? We know that Marie Couillard, the daughter of Guillaume, was the godmother of Martin Poulin at Quebec on October 17, 1648. As for Martin Grouvel, the godfather, a carpenter and barge master, he was everywhere at once in the region. One fact is certain, the Poulin family was on the Beaupre Coast on November 8, 1650 when Claude Poulin and Abel Benoit accepted from Olivier Tardif, procurer general of the Compagnie de Beaupre, a small farm called "Toussaincts" adjoining the Saint-Charles Farm at Saint-Joachim. The two contracting parties committed themselves, beginning on November 11, 1650, to work this portion of land together for six years.

In 1651, Tardif granted deeds to twenty inhabitants, including Claude Poulin, on the first of September. This land, with six arpents of frontage by a league and a half (about 4.5 miles) deep, was situated to the west of that of Etienne Lessard. Jean Bourdon had acquired it, from the Breton Julien Pacault on October 20, 1648 and ceded it, in a private agreement, to the Fabrique Notre-Dame de Quebec. The property had "buildings, cleared lands and cleared wood". Claude delivered fifty French livres into the hands of Pierre Gagnon for the church. The contract was signed, at Fort Saint-Louis, at Quebec. The Poulin family then settled at this place which would become Sainte-Anne-du-Petit-Cap, then much later on it became Sainte-Anne-de Beaupre.

SECOND STAY

The first pioneer of the territory of Sainte-Anne was Julien Pecault. His property passed to the Fabrique de Quebec. The church of Sainte-Anne would be built on this land, which became the Poulin property. Etienne Lessard also contributed a large portion of his concession to the church. Claude Poulin and his family still lived at Sainte-Anne and were witnesses to its inception from the very beginning.

Claude was godfather to the first child baptized and recorded in Sainte-Anne's registry. He was Claude Pelletier, the future Brother Didace, the first Canadian Recollet. In 1661, the head of the family gave sixteen livres for the church, worth sixteen days of work by an ordinary man, a royal gift at that time. Between 1662 and 1666, Our Ancestor gave the fabrique (church trustee) the sum of eight livres, seven minots of wheat, a minot of peas and one of corn (1 minot = 3 bushels). On the other hand, in 1633, he received twenty-two livres and nine sols for "the scroll on the door of the church and for a piece of wood and a pint of eau-de-vie".

On June 7, 1665, Poulin ceded to Abel Benoit seven perches (1 perch= 5.5 yards) of frontage in low land and two arpents (1 arpent = 85% of an acre) in high land. The census of 1666, reported that Claude Poulin was a carpenter. The census of 1667 tells us that he had eight head of cattle and twenty arpents of land under cultivation. Robert Foubert and Urbain Jamineau, close to Elie Godin, were his neighbors.

Claude obtained additional income by putting his talents as a woodworker to profit. In 1678, he worked to strengthen the bell in the church tower. In 1679, Madame Poulin provided food to the roofers of the church. The pastor paid her three minots of wheat and twelve pounds of butter.

The census takers in 1681 forgot to record the livestock on the Poulin farm and the size of the land under cultivation. Was it an error or was the property in decline?

HOPE FOR THE FUTURE

Hope is for those who live and for those who will live. The Poulin family property was lit nine times with rays of new life.

1) Marie (1) was baptized, on January 1, 1641 at Trois-Rivieres. She married Julien Mercier, the son of Francois and Roberte Cornilleau, on January 18, 1654 at Quebec. Marie was thirteen years old. They had ten children, six boys and four girls. Julien passed away on October 18, 1678 and buried the next day, at Beaupre. Marie remarried for a second time to Charles Montminy on November 10, 1682 at Beaupre. Charles was the widower of Marguerite Auolle, parents unknown. Marie and Charles had one child, Louis.
2) Pascal was baptized, on February 15, 1645 at Saint-Maclou, Rouen, Normandy. He was captured by the Iroquois, some time before 1661. Nothing else is known of him.
3) Madeleine was baptized, on June 27, 1646 at Saint-Maclou, Rouen, Normandy. She married Pierre Maufils. He was from Honfleur, Normandy. They were married, on November 19, 1659 at Quebec. They had five children, two boys and three girls.
4) Martin was born, on September 26 and baptized October 17th, 1648, at Quebec. He took, for his wife, Jeanne Baret, the daughter of Jean and Jeanne Bitouset, on January 21, 1688, at Beaupre. They had nine children, three boys and six girls. Martin died on January 15th and buried the next day, 1710, at Beaupre. Jeanne married again to Etienne Drouin, the son of Robert and Marie Chapelier on April 13, 1711, at Beaupre. They had no children.
5) Rene was born, on January 27, 1651 and baptized February 2nd at Quebec. Rene and his brother Pascal (#2) have a very tragic story. In the spring of 1661, the Beaupre Coast was shuddering under the impact of raids carried out by the hostile Iroquois who were creating havoc in the countryside. Louis Guimond and Louis Gagne' disappeared mysteriously and also these two Poulin sons. Pascal was sixteen and Rene was ten years old. The Journal des Jesuits, in June, of 1661, read: "The news of it was brought on the 18th, during the night, by the return of the aforementioned crew & at the time that from Trois-Rivieres where the enemy had killed 3 men from Cap. And that, of the two children of Cl. Poulin lost in the woods or taken by the Iroquois". What cruel anguish!! So many bitter tears at the Poulins!!
6) Ignace was born on December 19, 1655 and baptized February 2nd at Quebec. He married Marguerite Pare, the daughter of Robert and Francoise Lehoux on August 23, 1683 at Beaupre. They had seven children, four girls and three boys.
7) Marguerite was born on October 4th and baptized the 18th 1658 at Quebec. She made, as her lifetime partner, Jean Amiot, the son of Masse and Perrine Volant, on August 7, 1673 at Beaupre. They had ten children, seven girls and three boys.
8) Marie (2) was born and baptized May 25, 1661 at Beaupre. She married Etienne Lessard, the son of Etienne and Marguerite Sevestre, on April 17, 1679 at Beaupre. They also had ten children, four boys and six girls.
9) Pierre was born, on August 7, 1664 and baptized the next day at Chateau-Richer. He walked down the aisle with Anne Giguere, the daughter of Robert and Aimee Miville on November 13, 1689, at Beaupre. They too had ten children, six boys and four girls.

The Poulin family was a happy and prolific one, with its sixty-one grandchildren. The great and terrible ordeal was the silent and brutal disappearance of Pascal and Rene.

AT THE END OF THE HORIZON

The founding Poulin family were hardworking, social, lively and intelligent people. Jeanne Mercier, the courageous Ancestress, died on December 14, 1687. She was buried at Sainte-Anne, near the church which witnessed the wonders of the miracle-working saint for two hundred years. Three days after her burial, on Wednesday, December 17, Claude went to rejoin her and his children, Pascal and Rene, on the fields of Paradise, at the end of the horizon. The children gave seventy-two livres to the church "for burial and services of Claude Poulin and Jeanne Mercier". The descendants of Claude and Jeanne quickly spread everywhere in Quebec, especially in Beauce where, they are an active multitude. As Louis Frechette (?) wrote: "these children of the furrows founded an empire".

FAMILY NAME VARIATIONS

Considering how many ancestors went by the name of Poulin, it is not surprising that there are many variations today. Among them, we may find: Alair, Courval, Cresse, De Courval, De Cresse, De Francheville, De Fontaine, Fafard, Francheville, Lafontaine, Nicolet, Paulin, Paulent, Paulint, Poland, Polin, Poling, Poller, Poolin, Pooler, Poolr, Poulain, Poulan, Pouline, Poullain, Poullin and Terrier.

SUMMARY

Claude married Jeanne Mercier on 8 Aug 1639 in Québec City, Québec, Québec, Canada.(1 2 3 4) (Jeanne Mercier was born about 1622 in Les Sables-d'Olonne, Luçon, Poitou, France,(1 2) died on 14 Dec 1687 in Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré, Montmorency, Québec, Canada (4 5) and was buried on 15 Dec 1687 in Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré, Montmorency, Québec, Canada (1 4 5).

1 Tanguay, Cyprien, Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles Canadiennes, Vol 1, 1608-1700 (Global Heritage Press, 2001 with permission of la Société généalogique Canadienne-Française), pg 496.

2 Gagné, Peter J., Before the King's Daughters: The Filles à Marier, 1634-1662 (Pawtucket, RI: Quintin Publications, 2002), pg 222.

3 Institut Drouin, Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760 (AFGS 1968), pg 1099.

4 PRDH (University of Montréal - Online).

5 Gagné, Peter J., Before the King's Daughters: The Filles à Marier, 1634-1662 (Pawtucket, RI: Quintin Publications, 2002), pg 223.

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